A migraine is a type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head.
A migraine headache is caused by abnormal brain activity. This activity can be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe the attack begins in the brain and involves nerve pathways and chemicals. The changes affect blood flow in the brain and surrounding tissues.
Migraine headaches tend to first appear between the ages of 10 and 45. Sometimes, they begin earlier or later. Migraines may run in families. Migraines occur more often in women than men. Some women, but not all, have fewer migraines when they are pregnant.
Migraine attacks may be triggered by any of the following:
Migraines can also be triggered by certain foods. Most common are:
True migraine headaches are not a result of a brain tumor or other serious medical problem. Only a health care provider who specializes in headaches can determine if your symptoms are due to a migraine or other condition.
There are two main types of migraines:
An aura is a group of nervous system (neurologic) symptoms. These symptoms are considered a warning sign that a migraine is coming. Most often, the vision is affected and can include any or all of the following:
Other nervous system symptoms include yawning, difficulty concentrating, nausea, trouble finding the right words, dizziness, weakness, numbness, and tingling. Some of these symptoms are much less common with migraine headaches. If you have any of these symptoms, your provider will likely order tests to find the cause.
An aura often occurs 10 to 15 minutes before the headache, but can occur just a few minutes to 24 hours beforehand. A headache does not always follow an aura.
The headaches usually:
Other symptoms that may occur with the headache include:
Symptoms may linger, even after the migraine goes away. This is called a migraine hangover. Symptoms can include:
Each person responds differently to treatment. Some people have migraines only rarely and need little to no treatment. Others need to take several medicines or even go to the hospital sometimes.
Migraine headache is a risk factor for stroke. Risk is higher in people who smoke, more so in women who have migraines that occur with aura. In addition to not smoking, people with migraines should avoid other risk factors for stroke. These include:
Call 911 if:
Schedule an appointment or call your provider if:
Headache - migraine; Vascular headache - migraine